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Descriptions

001, Paper Chromatography
Chromatography is a technique in which components of a mixture are separated from one another on the basis of differences in solubility and attraction for two phases -- a moving phase and a stationary phase. The components of water soluble dye pigments are separated using water as the mobile phase and paper as the stationary phase.
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002, Separation
A mixture of iron filings, salt, benzoic acid, and sand is provided. The task is to design a scheme to separate the components into four separate containers.
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003, Liquid Chromatography
Chromatography is a technique in which components of a mixture are separated from one another on the basis of differences in solubility and attraction for two phases -- a moving phase and a stationary phase. The components of food coloring are separated using water or ethanol as the mobile phase and silica gel as the stationary phase.
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004, pH Indicators
A series of solutions of known [H] is prepared by successive dilutions from a stock solution. Dyes called pH indicators that have different colors depending upon the acidity are then added to these solutions.
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005, Classifying Strong Acids and Bases By Reactions
Strong acids and strong bases may be classified on the basis of their reactions with pH indicators, metals, and iron(III).
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006, Acid Rain Investigations
Carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides, all of which may be found in rain water, are generated. Their reactions with indicators are studied.
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007, Acids: Reactions with Common Substances
Common substances react with solutions of acids.
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008, Bronsted/Lowry Acids and Bases
The relative acidity of various salt solutions is determined by dissolving the crystals on pH paper and approximating the pH according to the color scale provided.
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009, Carbonic Acid, Bicarbonate Ion, Carbonate Ion, and Carbon Dioxide
Carbon dioxide gas is prepared by heating dry ice in a plastic transfer pipet. Using a stream of this gas, reactions with pH indicator solutions and calcium ion solutions are studied.
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010, Dead Stop Titration
Barium hydroxide is used to titrate hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid with a pH indicator. The conductivity of the solution is measured during the titration. Qualitative comparisons of these titrations are made and interpreted in terms of strong and weak electrolytes.
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011, pH Buffers
A series of solutions of known [H] is prepared by mixing two stock solutions in different proportions. Dyes called pH indicators that have different colors depending upon the acidity are then added to these solutions.
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012, Puzzle Titration
Five solutions are provided. Of these solutions, some contain HCl and others NaOH. The HCl solutions also contain dissolved phenolphthalein. Devise and perform experiments that permit separating the chemicals into two groups based upon composition. Devise and perform experiments that permit ranking the chemicals within each group according to concentration.
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013, Observing Reactions
This experiment is intended to strengthen observational skills. A set of unknown chemicals is provided. The objective is to mix these chemicals, two at a time, and observe evidence for reactions.
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014, Aluminum Corrosion
Copper(II) causes aluminum metal to react under certain circumstances. Conditions under which the aluminum reacts are determined.
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015, Combining Cations and Anions
The sodium salts of five common anions (C2H3O2, SO4, Cl, S, C2O4) are mixed with the nitrate salts of five common cations (K, Ba۱, Ag, Cu۱, Mn۱) to determine patterns of solubility. An optional sixth cation may be used to see more complex chemistries.
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016, Copper Reactions
Copper metal is dissolved in nitric acid. Copper (II) hydroxide is formed by reaction with sodium hydroxide. Copper (II) oxide is formed by heating. Copper (II) oxide is dissolved in acid. Copper (II) ions are reduced with zinc metal to produce copper metal.
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017, Electrolysis
Several solutions are electrolyzed using an apparatus constructed from a 9 volt battery and pencils.
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018, Halide Ions
Solutions of halide ions are mixed with other chemicals to study systematically the properties of the halide ions and to see periodic trends.
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019, Six Chemicals
Six known chemicals are studied by mixing them, two at a time. A set of unknowns is created by covering the labels on the knowns with identifying marks. On the basis of their reactions, the unknown chemicals are to be relabelled.
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020, Halogens and Halogen Reactions
Small amounts of three halogens (chlorine, bromine, and iodine) are prepared and studied.
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021, Hydrogen Peroxide as an Oxidizing and a Reducing Agent
Hydrogen peroxide in acid solution is oxidized with KMnO4 and reduced with KI.
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022, Mixing and Reactions
A colorful, dramatic chemical reaction is observed when two solutions are created in the same puddle of liquid by adding tiny crystals of potassium thiocyanate and iron(III) chloride hexahydrate to opposite sides of a small puddle of dilute hydrochloric acid.
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023, Oxidation States of Manganese
Potassium permanganate is reduced under different conditions to form three different substances.
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024, Activity Series
Several metals and solutions of their salts are mixed and examined in order to determine their relative activity.
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025, Using Solubility Rules
A variety of aqueous solutions is mixed together, two at a time, to determine which combinations produce a precipitate. On the basis of combining reaction patterns, a set of numbered "unknown" solutions is studied and relabeled.
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026, Boyle's Law
When the pressure is increased on a sample of gas maintained at constant temperature, the volume of the gas decreases. Using a small sample of gas trapped in a sealed insulin syringe, a quantitative study of this relationship is made.
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027, Charles' Law
The volume of gases varies with changes in the temperature.
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028, Gas Diffusion: Graham's Law
Hydrogen chloride and ammonia gas are mixed in a closed container. By measuring the distance between the points of origin of the two gases and the place where the formation of solid ammonium chloride is first noticed, a quantitative relationship between average speed and molar mass is confirmed.
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029, Diffusion of Two Gases in Two Dimensions
The diffusion of two gases across a 96-well plate filled with substances which are sensitive to the presence of these gases is observed.
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030, Gases: Preparation and Properties
Several gases are produced in a modified Petri dish apparatus, and their properties are studied on the basis of reactions with test papers.
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031, Molar Volume of a Gas
The molar volume of the gas resulting from the reaction of metallic magnesium in hydrochloric acid is determined by water displacement.
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032, Preparation and Properties of Oxygen
Oxygen (dioxygen) is prepared by the Feܱ catalyzed decomposition of H2O2. The gas produced is collected by displacement of water. The gas is tested with a glowing splint and with glowing steel wool.
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033, Water Rocket
A small plastic rocket is constructed from the bulb of a plastic transfer pipet with a wide stem. This bulb is filled with water, and then most of the water is displaced first with hydrogen and then oxygen. Electrodes are inserted into the device. A spark causes the mixture to explode and launch the rocket.
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034, Ammonia Solubility
A plastic transfer pipet bulb is filled with ammonia gas. When immersed under a dilute solution of phenolphthalein and squeezed, the bulb fills with water and the color turns pink.
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035, Electrical Conductivity
The electrical conductivities of solutions of strong electrolytes, weak electrolytes, and nonelectrolytes are studied.
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036, Temperature Dependence of Salt Solubility
The solubility of a water soluble salt is determined by studying salt solutions saturated at elevated temperatures that are cooled so that some salt precipitates out of the solution.
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037, Forming, Testing and Modifying Hypotheses
Chemical reactions involving color changes under restricted circumstances are studied. The emphasis is on forming and adapting hypotheses to the available information. As information based upon observations increases, beliefs about what is happening usually evolve.
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038, Henry's Law
The pressure of a gas over a solution determines the solubility of the gas; more gas dissolves at high pressure. When soda water is placed in a syringe with a suitable pH indicator, decreasing the pressure of the CO2 decreases the amount dissolved, and the change can be detected by noting its effect on the carbonic acid equilibrium.
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039, Solvent Properties
Five solutes are tested in four solvents. On the basis of the nature of the solutes and solvents, generalizations about solution formation are drawn.
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040, Surfactant Chemistry
Several surface phenomena are studied. The lowering of surface tension is shown by several experiments. An unusual experiment shows the spreading of dyes on a liquid surface.
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041, Formula of a Hydrate
Mass relationships are at the heart of chemistry. A known mass of copper sulfate pentahydrate is heated to produce anhydrous copper sulfate. The mass of CuSO4 found is compared to the amount predicted.
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042, Malachite Decomposition
Mass relationships are at the heart of chemistry. A known mass of malachite, CuCO3Cu(OH)2 is heated to produce copper(II) oxide. The mass of CuO found is compared to the amount predicted.
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043, Decomposition of Sodium Bicarbonate
Mass relationships are at the heart of chemistry. A known mass of sodium bicarbonate is heated to produce sodium carbonate. The mass of Na2CO3 found is compared to the amount predicted.
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044, Titration Strong Acid/Strong Base
Titration is a quantitative measuring procedure in which a liquid solution is added to a mixture until some distinctive feature signals an end point. From the amount and concentration of titrant used, the concentration of the material titrated is determined. Strong acids may be titrated using strong bases, and vice versa.
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045, Titration of Vinegar
Titration is a quantitative measuring procedure in which a liquid solution is added to a mixture until some distinctive feature signals an end point. From the amount and concentration of titrant used, the concentration of the material titrated is determined. Weak acids may be titrated using strong bases.
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046, Mass Titration of Vinegar
Titration is a quantitative measuring procedure in which a liquid solution is added to a mixture until some distinctive feature signals an endpoint. Vinegar is titrated with sodium hydroxide to a phenolphthalein endpoint. Instead of counting drops, the pipets are weighed before and after the titration. This procedure is less tedious and less prone to error than a drop counting procedure. Because top-loading balances are commonplace, there are good reasons to use mass-based titration procedures in the laboratory.
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047, Calibrating Pipets
Pipets deliver drops that are counted, one drop at a time. The purpose of this experiment is to study variations in the amount delivered per drop.
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048, Copper Sulfide -- Limiting Reagent
Copper sulfate and sodium sulfide solutions are mixed in different proportions to determine the combining ratio of these materials. After the reaction is complete, the liquid above any precipitate is tested for excess copper(II) and/or sulfide ions. A suitable formula for copper sulfide is determined.
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049, Ksp for Calcium Hydroxide
A saturated solution of calcium hydroxide (lime water) is titrated with hydrochloric acid of known concentration, and the Ksp of calcium hydroxide is determined from the resulting information.
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050, Precipitation Stoichiometry
Solutions of a soluble calcium salt are mixed with solutions of other soluble salts (sodium oxalate, sodium phosphate, and sodium oleate) that form insoluble calcium salts. By varying the relative amounts mixed so that one or the other chemical becomes limiting, the volume ratio for the maximum formation of precipitate is determined.
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051, Determining the Hardness of Water
The concentration of certain dissolved ions such as calcium and magnesium ions that make water hard is determined by a titration procedure using EDTA.
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052, Bleach Analysis
The analysis of household laundry bleach is undertaken by adding potassium iodide to acidified bleach and titrating the iodine formed with a standard solution of sodium thiosulfate.
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053, Chloride Assay
A volumetric procedure is used to assay for chloride ion in which an excess of silver ion is added and the excess silver is "back titrated" with thiocyanate solution. The endpoint is detected when excess thiocyanate reacts with iron to form a red complex, FeSCN۱.
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054, Vitamin C in Fruit Juices
Ascorbic acid is titrated with iodine to the appearance of a starch endpoint color. A calibration curve is recommended.
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055, Iodine Clock Kinetics
The time required for a mixture of hydrogen peroxide, starch, potassium iodide, and thiosulfate to turn blue is recorded and related to the concentration of the reactants. This is a study of a chemical rate law.
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056, Thiosulfate in Acid Solution
The acidification of thiosulfate solutions leads to the formation of colloidal sulfur. The rate of this reaction is studied by measuring the time required for the reaction mixture to become so turbid that is ceases to transmit light.
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057, Enzyme Activity
Extracts of fresh fruits contain enzymes. Some contain enzymes that prevent the gelling of gelatin. A study of extracts on the formation of a gel from unflavored gelatin is undertaken.
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058, The Rate of Crystal Violet Bleaching
A color comparison method is used to the study the rate at which crystal violet reacts with base. This experiment is tailored from F44 of the Doing Chemistry Series. Crystal violet is a cation but the resulting product is uncharged. As a result, the reaction rate is very sensitive to changes in ionic strength.
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059, Le Chatelier's Principle
A study of the iron(III) thiocyanate equilibrium using additions and chemical reactions to change concentrations on the position of the equilibrium is undertaken. The direction of these effects is predicted by Le Chatelier's Principle.
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060, Nitrogen Dioxide Dimerization
A sample of nitrogen dioxide produced by the reaction of copper and nitric acid is trapped in a small hypodermic syringe and sealed. By quickly compressing and expanding the gas sample, and noting ensuing color changes, characteristics of the dimerization equilibrium are studied.
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061, One Pot Copper(II) Reactions
A series of reactions is conducted in one vessel or pot. Evidence for the reactions is based upon precipitates forming and dissolving, and color changes.
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062, One Pot Iron(III) Reactions
A series of reactions is conducted in one vessel or pot. Evidence for the reactions is based upon precipitates forming and dissolving, and color changes.
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063, One Pot Silver Reactions
A series of reactions is conducted in one vessel or pot. Evidence for the reactions is based upon visual observations of precipitates forming and dissolving, and color changes.
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064, Copper Ammine Complex Formation
Aqueous copper(II) ion is mixed with solutions of ammonia of varying concentration. The formation of copper(II) hydroxide and the copper ammine complex is observed.
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065, Density -- A Linear Function
Density, the mass per unit volume of a system, is a useful property. A liquid displacement experiment is used to determine the densities of unreactive metallic elements. The elements are in the form of small, irregularly-shaped pieces. A graphical analysis procedure is employed.
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066, Lattice Bonding and Characteristic Properties
Substances that involve different types of lattice bonds -- forces holding units of the crystalline solids together -- show characteristic patterns of properties. In this experiment, representative members of these categories are studied.
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067, Melting Temperature
The melting temperature, a characteristic property useful in the identification of a substance, is measured.
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068, Normal Boiling Temperature
The normal boiling temperature, a characteristic property useful in the identification of a substance, is measured.
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069, Plastics
Samples of plastic are distinguished on the basis of floating or sinking in solvents of known density.
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070, Viscosity of Liquids
The viscosities of liquids are determined by measuring the time required for a constant volume of each liquid to drain from a modified plastic transfer pipet. Conclusions about the nature of viscosity are drawn from the results.
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071, Triple Point Phase Transition for Carbon Dioxide
A small sample of dry ice is placed in the bulb of a plastic transfer pipet. The stem is clamped shut. Under these conditions the solid absorbs heat, the pressure grows, and the solid melts when the critical pressure is reached.
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072, Growing Crystals in Gels
Crystals such as copper metal and calcium carbonate are grown inside silicate gels.
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073, Voltaic Cells
Several metals and solutions of their salts connected by a salt bridge and a volt meter in order to determine the electrical potential difference between the metals.
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074, Potentiometric Titration
Titration is a quantitative measuring procedure in which a liquid solution is added to a mixture until some distinctive feature signals an endpoint. The titration of Fe۱ with KMnO4 is studied. As the reaction proceeds, the ratio of Feܱ/Fe۱ increases and the electrical potential changes. After the endpoint, the ratio of MnO4/Mn۱ determines the potential. The potential of an electrode placed in this reaction mixture is compared to the potential of a Cu/Cu۱ reference system.
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075, Silver Mirror Reaction
A silver mirror typical of those found around the home is produced.
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076, Esters
Alcohols and organic acids are reacted in the presence of a dehydrating agent to produce esters, substances often recognized by their characteristic odors.
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077, Ethanol Combustion
A mixture of ethanol and air is sparked, and an explosion results.
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078, Amphoteric Hydroxides
Six different nitrate salts (Cu۱, Feܱ, Fe۱, Zn۱, Alܱ, Mn۱) react with OH in a two fold excess. A ten fold excess OH is subsequently added to all six. Some of the metal hydroxides exhibit amphoteric behavior by reacting with excess hydroxide and dissolving.
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079, Potentiometry During Silver One Pot Reactions
A series of reactions is conducted in one vessel or pot. Evidence for the reactions is based upon the observation of precipitates forming and dissolving, and color changes. The electrode potential in the reaction cell is measured against that of a standard Ag/Ag electrode. The cell potentials are correlated with the precipitation and color change observations.
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080, Electrophoresis
Gel Electrophoresis is a technique in which components of a mixture are separated from one another on the basis of differences in charge and attraction to a gel phase. The components of food coloring are separated using gelatin prepared in a very dilute ammonium acetate buffer. This experiment is recommended as a demonstration or special project because it requires several hours of running time.
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